Thursday, March 02, 2017

La Justicia y sus imaginales. Novedad bibliográfica

José M. González García
The Eyes of Justice
Blindfolds and Farsightedness, Vision and Blindness in the Aesthetics of Law
Trans. Lawrence Schimel
Pref. Werner Gephart (‘The Eyes of the Observer:
Looking at José M. González García’s Gaze of Justice’, pp. 5-6)
Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann GmbH (Recht als Kultur 13) 2017
2017. 412 pp.
ISBN: 9783465042655

Should Justice be blind or should she instead be capable of seeing everything, even the human heart? José M. González García examines how the iconography of Justice evolved over the course of history. Providing an overview of depictions of Justice in various ages and places, the book mainly focuses on “The Blindfold Dispute” that began to develop during Renaissance.

While at first the blindfold was perceived as unjust, precisely because it denied Justice the ability to see everything, it transformed just a few years later into a positive symbol of the equality of all individuals before the law. And other depictions were added: supplementary eyes, transparent blindfolds, the double face of Janus, the returns of Astraea and the “Eye of the Law”. The book also analyses important historic moments in which the crisis of the Law went along with a search for new forms of representing the gaze of Justice, as reflections on the art of Dürer, Klimt and Kafka as well as recent developments in political philosophy show.


First Part
Iconographic Traditions on the Gaze of Justice

Chapter 1
Hymn to the Gaze of Justice That Sees All

1. Mesopotamia: History Begins at Sumer
2. Ancient Egypt: The Sun of Justice and the Book of the Dead
3. Greece: »The Eye of Justice Sees All That Happens«
3.1. The Shield of Achilles
3.2. Orphic Hymns to Honor Themis, Dike, and Nemesis
3.3. Astraea Flees to Heaven in the Age of Iron and Returns to Earth in New Golden Ages
3.4 The Image of Justice in Greek Philosophy
3.5. The Image of Justice in Greek Tragedy
4. The Image of Justice in Rome
5. The Medieval Justice Also Has Her Eyes Wide Open
5.1. The Temple of Justice
5.2. Religious Figures of the Final Judgment: God Is the Justice That Sees All
5.3. The Age of the Cathedrals
5.4. The Era of the Town Halls
5.5. Allegories of Good and Bad Government: The Frescos of Ambrogio Lorenzetti
at the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena (1338–39)
5.6. Venice, City of Justice

Chapter 2
The Blindfold Dispute

1. The Second Tradition: A Blindfold over the Eyes of Justice as a Critique
1.1 The Ship of Fools, by Sebastian Brant (1494): Foolishness Places a Blindfold over the Eyes of Justice
1.2. Bamberg Capital Court Statute (Bambergische Peinliche Halsgerichtsordnung),
1.3. Blinded Justice Falling from a Horse, 1550 and 1627
1.4. Bruegel the Elder, Justice (Iustitia), 1559
2. Third Tradition: The Blindfolded or Closed Eyes of Justice as a Positive Symbol
2.1. Strasbourg, March 12, 1498: Jakob Locher Publishes His Edition of Horace’s Works
2.2 Peter Vischer the Younger, 1524, Allegory in Honor of Luther or Representation
of the Reformation in Images (Sinnbildliche Darstellung der Reformation)
2.3. The Criminal Code of the City of Worms, 1499 and 1531
2.4. Adreas Alciato, Emblematum Liber, 1531
2.5. Cesare Giglio, The Theban Judges, 1604
2.6. Christ, The Just One, Mocked and Blindfolded
3. The Dispute between Justice Blindfolded (with Negative or Positive
Meanings) and without a Blindfold (with a Penetrating Gaze)
3.1. The Criminal Codes as a Process in the Blindfold Dispute in Germany:
Bamberg Capital Court Statute, 1507
3.2. The Third Fundamental Iconographic Moment in the Legal Science
of the Sixteenth Century: The Enactment of the Carolina Code or
Constitutio Criminalis Carolina, 1530–33
3.3. Comparison between Two Justices (One with a Blindfold and the Other without)
3.4. Justice on the Doors, Façades, and Rooftops of the Town Halls
3.5. The Fountains of Justice

Chapter 3
Other Traditions of the Gaze of Justice: Extraordinary Eyes, Transparent Blindfolds, the Double Face of Janus, Astraea’s Returns and the Eye of the Law .

1. The Fourth Tradition: Justice Has Even Sharper Vision, Thanks to Additional Eyes
1.1. Battista Fiera: On the Painting of Justice, 1515
1.2. Vincenzo Cartari: The Sun’s Gaze Helps the Open Eyes of Justice
1.3. Cesare Ripa: Justice’s Vigilant Gaze and the Blindfold over the Eyes
1.4. Giovanni Andrea de Ferrari, Allegory of Justice, ca. 1620
1.5. Giacomo Lodi: Justice with a Single Eye on Her Forehead, 1642
1.6. Mathias Blumenthal, Justitia Majestata, 1762
2. The Fifth Tradition: Justice’s Transparent Blindfold
3. The Sixth Tradition: Injustice as bias or removing the blindfold from
only one of the eyes of Justice
4. The Seventh Tradition: Justice Closes Her Eyes Because of Weariness,
Death, Tears, or to Reject the Violence Done in Her Name
4.1. Allegories of Sleeping Justice: Mathias Gehrung, Johann König, and Daniel Chodowiecki
4.2. Cesare Beccaria, Dei delitti e delle pene, 1764
4.3. Francisco de Goya: Justice Mourns the Death of Truth
5. The Eighth Tradition: Justice with the Double Face of Janus in
Damhoudere, Praxis rerum criminalium …, Antwerp, 1562
6. Two Means of Recovering Justice’s Penetrating Gaze: Astraea’s Returns
and the »Eye of the Law«
6.1. Astraea, the Cosmic Justice Who Sees Everything, Returned to the Earth,
and Was Embodied in Different European Monarchs
6.2. The »Eye of the Law«: Justice Regains her Vision

Second Part
Three Historic Moments in Which the Crisis of the Law Goes Hand in Hand with a Search for New Ways of Representing the Gaze of Justice

Chapter 4
Images of Justice and the Law in the Works of Albrecht Dürer

1. Christ as the Sun of Justice and the Universal Judge
2. Knight, Death, and the Devil
3. Justice, Virtue of the Emperor
4. Justices for the Town Hall of the City of Nuremberg
4.1. The Calumny of Apelles
4.2. The Triumphal Car of Emperor Maximilian I
4.3. Justice and Peace Have Kissed Each Other
4.4. Trajan’s Justice
4.5. Sancta Iusticia, 1521
4.6. The Four Apostles
5. Criticism of Injustice and Corrupt Judges: The Michelfeldt Tapestry

Chapter 5
Crisis of the Liberal Model of Justice in Turn-of-the-Century Vienna

1. Gustav Klimt: Jurisprudence and the »Conflict of the Faculties«
2. Franz Kafka: The Labyrinth of the Law and the Impossibility of Justice

José M. González García, philosopher and sociologist is Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) in Madrid. He is also Life Member of Clare Hall (University of Cambridge) and was Fellow at the Käte Hamburger Kolleg "Recht als Kultur" (Bonn University).


Con un título similar, si bien enfocado a horizontes mucho más limitados, publicó Roberta Kevelson The Eyes of Justice. Seventh Round Table on Law and Semiotics (New York, Bern, Berlin, Frankfurt/M., Paris, Wien, 1994. ISBN: 9780820422619).

En fecha más reciente ha de mencionarse la obra de Judith Resnik- Dennis Curtis Representing Justice Invention, controversy, and Rights in City-States and Democratics Courtrooms (Yale University Press, 2010, 720 pp. ISBN: 9780300110968), varias de cuyas ilustraciones pueden verse en La Universidad de Yale ofrece asimismo un banco extraordinario de imágenes que animo a contemplar ( Allí destaca el meritorio trabajo de Mike Widener, Rare Book Librarian at the Lillian Goldman Law Library, Yale Law School y excelente amigo. A su labor investigadora y expositiva se deben entradas en el blog Rare Books de la Biblioteca que gestiona como las siguientes:

Justice as a Sign of the Law: The Tribunal of Fools
September 24, 2011 - 2:38pm by Mike Widener

Justice as a Sign of the Law: Ripa’’s Iconologie
September 24, 2011 - 2:55pm by Mike Widener

September 24, 2011
Justice as a Sign of the Law: The Icon in the Courts 

Justice as a Sign of the Law: The Fool Blindfolding Justice
September 24, 2011 - 10:19am by Mike Widener
Justice as a Sign of the Law: Alciati’'s Emblemata
September 24, 2011

En este universo imaginal la referencia a Iconologia overo descrittione dell’imagini universali cavate dall’Antichità et da altri luoghi, impreso en 1593, de Cesare Ripa (c. 1560-c. 1622) sigue siendo obligada. Ripa reunió representaciones procedentes de Egipto, Grecia y Roma.
El imaginal de la Justicia , ya entonces amplísimo, no ha dejado de crecer. Hace poco hallé esta imagen en
Se encuentra en el Paleis op de Dam, en Amsterdan. Desde su trono la justicia derrota, serena pero en forma concluyente, a la Codicia, representada por el Rey Midas con orejas de burro, y a la Envidia, figurada de modo que mucho recuerda a la Gorgona antes de ser decapitada por Perseo, El conjunto se complate, a un lado y otro, con la in¡mpertérrita Muerte -a la izquierda de la imagen- que deja transcurrir el tiempo segura de que llegará el dñia expirante, mientras -a la derecha- la simbologñia de los castigos e instrumentos de tortura expresan la dolorosa experiencia de una hora más inmediata.
El piélago de imágenes sobre la Justicia y el Derecho es ciertamente inmenso.
Por ello mismo, el trabajo de José María González García es un auténtico tesoro reflexivo. Al acervo de su riqueza han venido añadiéndose algunos preciosos metales que ya se reunieron Metáforas del Poder (Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1998. ISBN: 8420679186) y La diosa Fortuna. Metamorfosis de una metáfora política, (Madrid: Antonio Machado, 2006. ISBN: 8477747733). Ahora The Eyes of Justicia -traducción a lengua inglesa, considerablemente ampliada de La mirada de la Justicia. Ceguera, venda en los ojos, velo de ignorancia, visión y clarividencia en la estética del derecho (Madrid: Antonio Machado Libros, 2016. ISBN: 9788477743170)- los reúne y acrecienta con máximo esplendor; en este sentido, caps. 4 ('Images of Justice and the Law in the Works of Albrecht Dürer') y 5 de la segunda parte ('Crisis of the Liberal Model of Justice in Turn-of-the-Century Vienna') aportan un caudal nuevo y brillantísimo, chorreante de abundancia. Durero, Klimt y Kafka contemplados desde un enfoque de inteligente análisis, con sugestivo ángulo de perspectiva de los que el lector obtendrá nuevos aportes de cultura visual del Derecho, según la incitación lo que vengo años propugnando y tiene cada día mayor número de interesados.
Por mi parte, con auxilio en los estudios en iconografía e iconología de Erwin Panofsky redacté hace años algunas páginas sobre el grabado  Sol Justitiae (o El Juez), de Albrecht Dürer en 1499, formando en consideraciones diversas, alguna de las cuales desembocaba en la doctrina de los contratos leoninos. Véase La justicia como relato. Ensayo de una semiótica sobre los jueces (Málaga: Lib. Ágora, 200, 2ª ed.. ISBN: 9788481600902).
Recordaré que apenas dos semanas atrás reseñaba en este espacio la obra de Anna Simone Rappresentare il diritto e la giustizia nella modernità. Universi simbolici, iconografia, mutamento sociale (Milano: Mimesis Edizioni, 2016. ISBN: 9788857538228) (Véase: De otras, también existe noticia. Así, remontando fechas:
Marcílio Toscano Franca Filho
A Cegueira da Justiça:
Ensaio Iconográfico entre Arte e Direito

Porto Alegre: Sergio Antonio Fabris Editor, 2011. ISBN: 8575255629
The Arts and the Legal Academy
Beyond Text in Legal Education
Edited by Zenon Bankowski, Maksymilian Del Mar, Queen Mary, and Paul Maharg
London: Ashgate, 2012. ISBN: 1409429111
The Moral Imagination and the Legal Life. Beyond Text in Legal Education
Edited by Zenon Bankowski, and Maksymilian Del Mar
London: Ashgate, (Serie ‘Emerging Legal Education’), 2013.  ISBN: 978140942808-4
Law, culture and Visual Studies
Anne Wagner- Richard K. Sherwin (eds.)
Berlin/New York: Springer, 2014. ISBN: 99048193219
Rosalind Brown-Grant, Bernard Ribemont, Anne D. Hedeman (eds.)
Textual and Visual Representations of Power and Justice in Medieval France: Manuscripts and Early Printed Books Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2015, ISBN: 1472415707
Y no me olvido de otros dos grandes trabajos, como son:
Peter Goodrich & Valérie Hayaert (eds.)
Genealogies of Legal Vision
London: Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2015. ISBN: 0415749077
Peter Goodrich
Legal Emblems and the Art of Law. Obiter Depicta as the Vision of Governance, Cambridge UP, Cambridge, 2013. ISBN: 9781107035997
De todo ello, pues, se encontrará huella en este blog
Por lo demás, tengo en mi biblioteca, pendiente de lentos deleites, igualmente La evidencia de las imágenes (1969), de E.H. Gombrich (trad. de Ander Gondra Aguirre, Vitoria-Gasteiz-Buenos Aires, Ediciones Sans Soleil, 2014. ISBN: 9788494098871 2ª ed. en 2016).

La contribución de José María González García es, en este panorama, de todo punto valiosa. Siendo la más importante que se ha hecho en nuestro país es también, sin duda, la del contenido de mayor enjundia y rigurosa sistematicidad en el tratamiento de imágenes y aparato crítico-bibliográfico de las hasta ahora disponibles en Europa. No será preciso, por tanto, insistir en su excelencia. Lo haré, sin embargo, en su recomendación, del todo entusiasta. Y también como nueva oportunidad para subrayar, otra vez, el dato significativo del creciente peso científico que los estudios interdisciplinares sobre Cultura visual del Derecho, cuya presencia resta imprudentemente por incorporar a la enseñanza y formación jurídica.

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