Tuesday, February 25, 2014

Judicialización del Rap/ Hip Hop music en USA



Charis E. Kubrin (University of California), Irvine, and Erik Nielson (University of Richmond))
“Rap on Trial”
Race and Justice, An International Journal
Shaun L. Gabbidor Editor (Penn State Harrisburg, USA)


In criminal proceedings across the U.S., rap music lyrics are being introduced as evidence of a defendant’s guilt. In this essay we draw attention to this disturbing practice, what we call “rap on trial,” and explore its context, describe its elements and contours, and consider its broader significance. We first offer historical context, demonstrating that although the widespread use of rap lyrics in criminal trials may be a relatively recent phenomenon, it resides within a long tradition of antagonism between the legal establishment and hip hop culture, one that can be traced back to hip hop’s earliest roots. We then offer examples of recent cases in which rap music has been used as evidence in trials against amateur rappers, almost all of whom are young men of color, in order to illustrate the specific ways that prosecutors present the music to judges and juries, as well as to highlight the devastating effects it can have on defendants. In the final section, we consider the elements of rap music that leave it vulnerable to judicial abuse, as well as the artistic, racial, and legal ramifications of using this particular genre of music to put people in jail. We conclude with recommendations for further research in this area, pointing out specific areas where scholarship would most effectively expose what it means to put rap on trial.

Acceso al PDF (Download Full Text PDF) en:
https://webfiles.uci.edu/ckubrin/Rap%20on%20Trial_Forthcoming.pdf?uniq=-mizojq

En los procesos penales en los Estados Unidos, se están introduciendo Letras de canciones de rap como prueba de la culpabilidad del acusado. En este ensayo que nos llama la atención a esta inquietante la práctica, lo que llamamos "rap a juicio" y explorar su contexto, describir sus elementos y contornos y considerar su significado más amplio. Primero ofrecemos contexto histórico, demostrando que aunque el uso generalizado de Letras de rap en los juicios penales puede ser un fenómeno relativamente reciente, que residan dentro de una larga tradición de antagonismo entre el sistema legal y la cultura hip hop, que se remonta a las primeras raíces del hip hop. Luego ofrecemos ejemplos de casos recientes en que rap music se ha utilizado como evidencia en juicios contra raperos aficionados, casi todos ellos jóvenes de color, con el fin de ilustrar las formas específicas en que los fiscales presentan la música a los jueces y los jurados, así como poner de relieve los efectos devastadores que puede tener sobre los acusados. En la sección final, consideramos que los elementos de la música rap que lo dejan vulnerables a abusos judiciales, así como las ramificaciones artísticas, raciales y legales del uso de este particular género de música para enviar gente a la cárcel. Concluimos con recomendaciones para la investigación adicional en esta área, señalando las áreas académicas específicas donde se podría exponer más eficazmente lo que significa poner rap en juicio.

Monday, February 24, 2014

Crimen de Guerra y responsabilidades colectivas



Karine Wurtz
Crimes de guerre. L'apport des théories morales de la responsabilité
Classiques Garnier (coll. "Politiques"), Paris, 2014, 322 pp.
ISBN: 9782812417986


À qui attribuer un crime de guerre? Comment prendre en considération le fait que la guerre peut être traumatisante pour les soldats sans pour autant excuser les actes commis? Cet ouvrage, d'inspiration autant analytique que continentale, cherche à comprendre les enjeux des responsabilités pour crime de guerre.
Who is responsible for war crimes? How can we take into the consideration the fact that war can be traumatising for soldiers without excusing the crimes committed? This work, inspired as much by the analytic tradition as by the continental, seeks to understand just what is at stake in designating responsibility for war crimes


INTRODUCTION

PREMIÈRE PARTIE

Entrée en guerre et participation à la guerre
Des responsabilités partagées?
Des différents types de risques
qui pèsent sur la responsabilité du soldat
Responsabilité du soldat pour sa participation
Bilan

JUGEMENT MORAL PORTE SUR LA GUERRE

La compréhension des responsabilités partagées entre ceux
qui la font et ceux qui la décident est-elle modifiée ?
Le jugement moral porté sur la guerre
Jugement moral sur la guerre et théorie de la guerre juste.
Exposition
Le jugement moral modifie-t-il l’extension
relative de la catégorie des crimes de guerre ?
Dépasser l’alternative entre utilitarisme
et déontologisme
Responsabilité du soldat.
La valeur de ses actes est-elle modifiée
par ces jugements moraux ?
Bilan

DEUXIÈME PARTIE

L’apport de la perspective collective
Penser les responsabilités impliquées
par la commission de certains crimes
La responsabilité du génocidaire.
Entre responsabilité individuelle
et responsabilité collective
Les responsabilités pour crime de guerre
doivent-elle être conçues
sur un modèle similaire ?

LE CRIME DE GUERRE IMPLIQUE-T-IL
UNE DIMENSION COLLECTIVE PERTINENTE
DANS L’ETABLISSEMENT DES RESPONSABILITES ?

Prise en compte de la dimension collective.
La notion de crime de guerre introduit une tension
La guerre implique-t-elle
nécessairement des collectifs?
Qu’est- ce qu’un acte « collectif »?
Comment comprendre la dimension collective
impliquée par la guerre ?
Bilan

THEORIES MORALES DE LA RESPONSABILITE COLLECTIVE

Y a-t-il un sens à parler de « responsabilité collective »?
Principale controverse
Deuxième difficulté :
la structure de la responsabilité collective
Responsabilité collective et responsabilités individuelles
des membres du groupe
Bilan

L’APPORT DES THEORIES MORALES
DE LA RESPONSABILITE COLLECTIVE

Un nouvel éclairage à la question
des responsabilités liées aux crimes de guerre?
Responsabilité d’un collectif impliqué
dans la commission d’un crime de guerre
Responsabilités impliquées
par la signification des crimes
Bilan

TROISIÈME PARTIE

PEUT-ON FONDER UNE RESPONSABILITE
POUR NE PAS ETRE INTERVENU ?

Les conditions de l’intervention
Pouvons-nous fonder un devoir d’intervention?
Admettre un devoir d’intervention,
c’est nier un droit de ne pas intervenir
Pouvons-nous admettre une responsabilité
pour n’être pas intervenu ?

LES ACTES A DOUBLE EFFET EN CONTEXTE DE CONFLIT ARME

Enjeux de la doctrine du double effet
Responsabilité et acte à double effet
Bilan

L’APPORT DE LA DISTINCTION ENTRE « TUER » ET « LAISSER MOURIR » POUR
PENSER L’IMPUTABILITE DE DEUX CAS LIMITES

Non-intervention et situations de « double effet »
Débats autour de la distinction morale
entre « tuer » et « laisser mourir »
Application de la distinction aux cas limites
Évaluation des débats
Bilan

QUATRIÈME PARTIE

LES THEORIES MORALES DE LA SANCTION

Les théories dites « rétributives » de la peine
Les théories dites « conséquentialistes» de la peine
La peine comme réconciliation
Bilan

L’APPORT DES THEORIES MORALES DE LA SANCTION

Les théories de la sanction sont-elles valides
dans le cas des crimes de guerre?
Le paradigme de l’impunité
Pour qui ou pour quoi écarter l’option
de l’impunité?
Bilan

CONCLUSION

Difficultés propres aux crimes de guerre
Repenser les schèmes classiques de l’imputation
Fractures entre responsabilité et imputabilité
Risques de récupération politique

BIBLIOGRAPHIE

INDEX DES AUTEURS

Thursday, February 20, 2014

Derecho, Rock y FIFA. Novedad bibliográfica. Brasil



Germano Schwartz
Direito and Rock: o BRock e as expectativas normativas da Constituçao de 1958 e do Junho de 2013
Livraria do Advogado Editora Porto Alegre, 2014, 152 pp.
ISBN: 857348902




“Qual o papel do rock nesta nova configuração política? O que este estilo significa para a juventude das Jornadas de Junho? Há espaço para que o rock retome sua capacidade desconstrutora? O Direito esgotou as possibilidades subversivas do rock? Estamos velhos demais para o rock e jovens demais para morrer? Esses temas/problemas são questões que movem Germano neste intrigante trabalho... Excelente encontrar textos como Direito & Rock em uma época em que a racionalidade atuarial e burocrática domina o saber jurídico e, consequentemente, mina/obstrui qualquer possibilidade de desenvolvimento de um pensamento criativo e inovador. São textos como este que permitem oxigenar o debate e acreditar, ainda, na possibilidade de um discurso jurídico não ortodoxo” (Salo de Carvalho).

Sumário

Lista de abreviaturas

For those about to rock,“I” salute you

1. Introdução
2. A diferenciação funcional do rock
2.1. Relações Sistema x Ambiente. Comunicação.
2.2. Origens e evolução do rock
2.3. Diferenciando-se subversivamente
2.4. Construindo futuro
3. O BRock e as expectativas normativas: censura, a censura, a única entidade
que ninguém censura
3.1. O BRock
3.2. Direito x rock? (Direito e rock, Direito no rock e Direito do rock)
3.2.1. Direito e rock
3.2.2. Direito no rock
3.2.3. Direito do rock
3.3. Expectativas normativas da sociedade brasileira nos anos finais da
ditadura militar e o BRock
3.3.1. A Desesperança sob o Manto da CF/67
3.3.2. Subvertendo a ordem estabelecida
3.3.3. Pelo fim do Estado de Direito
3.3.4. A repressão
3.3.5. A tortura
3.3.6. Uma nova Constituição
3.3.7. A liberdade de expressão
3.3.8. Direitos fundamentais individuais e coletivos
4. O céu é só uma promessa
4.1. Cidadania e democracia. A Constituição Federal de 1988
4.1.1. A Constituição entre o subsistema do Direito e o subsistema da
Política
4.2. Democracia, Constituição e rock
4.2.1. Rock e democracia “around the world”
4.3. A incorporação da comunicação do rock na Constituição de 1988.
Positividade e observação de primeira ordem
4.3.1. Uma nova CF
4.3.2. O Estado Democrático de Direito
4.3.3. Pelo término da repressão
4.3.4. Os direitos fundamentais
5. O futuro não é mais como era antigamente
5.1. O trato da decepção pelo sistema jurídico
5.2. O abandono do retemporalização da Constituição Federal de 1988
pelo rock brasileiro
5.2.1. O que o rock brasileiro da segunda década do terceiro milênio
comunica?
5.3. O junho de 2013 antecipou o futuro sem o rock
5.3.1. Abaixo toda repressão – reforma política
5.3.2. Educação padrão FIFA
5.3.3. Não à PEC 37
5.3.4. Se o transporte é público, por que eu pago? Se eu pago,
por que é ruim?
5.3.5. “Nas favelas, no Senado, sujeira para todo lado. Ninguém respeita
a Constituição mas todos acreditam no futuro da Nação. Que País é Este?”
5.3.6. Hospital padrão FIFA
5.3.7. Exigimos segurança padrão FIFA
6. This is the end?
7. Referências
8. Anexo – websites das Bandas BRock


Germano Schwartz, Possui graduação em Direito pela Universidade de Cruz Alta (1995), mestrado em Direito pela Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul (2000) e doutorado em Direito pela UNISINOS (2003). Estágio doutoral sanduíche na Université Paris X-Nanterre (2002/2003). Estágio Pós-Doutoral na University of Reading (UK) em 2008. Professor Visitante do Instituto Internacional de Sociologia Jurídica de Oñati (Oñati Fellows - 2007). Professor do Mestrado em Sociologia do Direito do Instituto Internacional de Sociologia Jurídica de Oñati. Visiting Scholar na University of Reading (UK) em 2008. Coordenador do Mestrado em Direito do UniLaSalle/Canoas. Docente do Mestrado em Saúde e Desenvolvimento Humano do UniLaSalle. Professor do Curso de Direito da Faculdade da Serra Gaúcha.

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Congresso Internacional ‘Direito na Lusofonia’. Escola de Direito da Universidade do Minho. Portugal







No presente ano letivo a Escola de Direito da Universidade do Minho comemora 20 anso de existência. Entre as diversas atividades com que se pretende assinalar o acontecimento conta-se a celebração de um Congresso Internacional subordinado ao tema "Direito na Lusofonia", nos dias 20, 21 e 22 de Fevereiro de 2014. Assinalam-se, assim, também as ligações da Escola com projetos de ensino de outros países, com os quais se partilha um património cultural, linguístico e jurídico que é importante fator da nossa identidade.
Ao longo destes dias, pretendemos juntar académicos, magistrados, advogados, representantes políticos nacionais e estrangeiros, numa reflexão transversal ao mundo jurídico, distribuída pelas seguintes áreas temáticas:
I - Direito, Língua e Cultura
II - Justiça: Paradigmas e Desafios
III - Tutela dos Direitos Humanos no séc. XXI
IV - Direito e Globalização
V - Transnacionalidade, Governação e Segurança
A programação do Congresso inclui sessões plenárias, a cargo de oradores convidados, bem como sessões parciais agrupando comunicações com temáticas afins.

Monday, February 17, 2014

Masculinidad hegemónica y violencia en la era victoriana


Lois S Bibbings
Binding Men: Stories About Violence and Law in Late Victorian England: Nineteenth Century Criminal Cases and the Policing of Masculinity
Routledge-Cavendish, London, 2014, 240 pp.
ISBN: 978-1904385417


Binding Men is a book about nineteenth century notions of masculinity. It examines a number of nineteenth century criminal cases, focusing upon theoretical themes relating to masculinity and the state in order to offer both a way of reading past decisions as well as a means of analysing of nineteenth century attitudes in society and the courts. Of the cases selected some are still binding upon English and Welsh courts today, others are first instance decisions and a few attracted a great deal of sensation when they were heard. Of these the most well known are R v Dudley and Stevens (murder, necessity and cannibalism), R v Boulton (crossing dressing), R v Coney (prize-fighting) and R v Crippen (the trial of Dr Crippen). This book combines traditional legal analysis with a more socio-legal and social historical approach. Drawing upon a variety of sources including trial transcripts, law reports, official correspondence and newspaper stories, Binding Men unpicks the narratives of masculinity which the cases tell., Binding Men tells stories about men, violence and law in late Victorian England. It does so by focusing upon five important legal cases all of which were binding not only upon the males involved but also upon future courts and the men who appeared before them. The subject matter of Prince (1875), Coney (1882), Dudley and Stephens (1884), Clarence (1888) and Jackson (1891) ranged from child abduction, prize-fighting, murder and cannibalism to transmitting gonorrhoea and the capture and imprisonment of a wife by her husband. Each case has its own chapter, depicting the events which led the protagonists into the courtroom, the legal outcome and the judicial pronouncements made to justify this, as well as exploring the broader setting in which the proceedings took place. In so doing, Binding Men describes how a particular case can be seen as being a part of attempts to legally limit male behaviour. The book is essential reading for scholars and students of crime, criminal law, violence, gender. It will be of interest to those working on the use of narrative in academic writing as well as legal methods. Binding Mene(tm)s subject matter and accessible style also make it a must for those with a general interest in crime, history and, in particular, male criminality., Binding Meninvestigates nineteenth century notions of masculinity. It examines a number of nineteenth century criminal cases, focusing upon theoretical themes relating to masculinity and the state in order to offer a way of reading past decisions as well as a means of analyzing nineteenth century attitudes in society and the courts. Of the cases selected some are still binding upon English and Welsh courts today, others are first instance decisions and a few attracted a great deal of sensation when they were heard. Of these the most well-known are R v Dudley and Stevens(murder, necessity and cannibalism), R v Boulton (cross-dressing), R v Coney (prize-fighting) and R v Crippen (the trial of Dr Crippen). This book combines traditional legal analysis with a more socio-legal and social historical approach. Drawing upon a variety of sources including trial transcripts, law reports, official correspondence and newspaper stories, Binding Menunpicks the narratives of masculinity which the cases tell.

Introduction

CHAPTER ONE
R v Prince 1875: Constraining Carnality

CHAPTER TWO
R v Coney, Gilliam and Tully 1881-2: Civilising Combatants and Limiting Lawlessness

CHAPTER THREE
R v Dudley and Stephens 1884: Subduing the Savage

CHAPTER FOUR
R v Clarence 1888: Supervising Sex

CHAPTER FIVE
R v Jackson 1891: Dictating Dominion

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
INDEX.

Lois S Bibbings Senior Lecturer, University of Bristol Law School, honorary member, Centre for Ethics in Medicine, University of Bristol. She researches gender and violence. Her previous monograph was Telling Tales About Men: Conceptions of Conscientious Objectors to Military Service During the First World War (MUP, 2009).

Sunday, February 16, 2014

Droit international et cinéma. Centre de droit international. Université Libre de Bruxelles







Présentations et représentations du droit international

dans les films et les séries télévisées
17 et 18 février 2014
Salle Dupréel, Institut de sociologie 1er étage
44 avenue Jeanne, 1050 Bruxelles

  Le Centre de droit international fait son cinéma !
Le cinéma est un objet d’études pour les sciences humaines depuis un certain temps déjà. D’abord, les relations entre droit et cinéma ont fait l’objet d’un certain nombre de réflexions de la part de juristes qui travaillent essentiellement dans un cadre juridique national, et à partir du véritable genre que sont devenus les Courtroom movies. Ensuite, on peut pointer un grand nombre d’études mettant en relation le cinéma et les relations internationales. Dans ces études, cependant, le droit n’est qu’exceptionnellement évoqué, si tant est qu’il le soit jamais. Bref, si on met à part quelques rares écrits, les relations entre droit international et cinéma n’ont jamais fait l’objet d’une analyse spécifique, lacune que vise à combler le présent colloque. Son objectif est de montrer quelles sont les représentations qui se dégagent des productions cinématographiques, autrement dit quelle est l’image du droit international et des normes qui le composent qui est véhiculée dans les films et séries. Au-delà d’une critique strictement juridique, l’ambition est de prendre en compte, dans une perspective plus large empreinte d’interdisciplinarité, les relations entre droit international, cinéma et idéologie. Le projet a aussi une vocation didactique, favorisant à la fois un dialogue entre académiques et acteurs du monde culturel et, plus largement, une prise de distance et une vision critique de la part de tout (télé)spectateur.



— Lundi 17 février —


8h45 : Accueil
9h. Allocutions introductives:
M. Didier VIVIERS, Recteur de l’Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB)
Me Fadila LAANAN, Ministre de la Culture, de l’Audiovisuel, de la Santé et de l’Egalité des Chances
9h30 : « Droit international et cinéma : quelle méthodologie ? », par Olivier CORTEN (ULB)
Atelier 1 – Le droit international, réalité ou
(science-) fiction ?
Présidence : Pierre KLEIN (ULB)
10h -11h :
« ‘Au mépris du danger, reculer l’impossible !’ : à la recherche d’un ordre juridique intergalactique », par Marco BENATAR (VUB)
« Les rapports inter-espèces dans les films de science-fiction et dans le droit international terrien », par Vincent CHAPAUX (ULB)
Pause
11h30-12h :
« Un droit international surréaliste ? La lex sportiva cinématographiée », par Franck LATTY (Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité)
Débats
Atelier 2 – Guerre, force et opérations de police: de quel droit ?
Présidence : Barbara DELCOURT (ULB)
14h30-15h30 :
« Mais où est passée la Charte des Nations Unies ? Représentations et sous-représentations des règles sur l’usage de la force dans les films d’action », par Olivier CORTEN (ULB)
« Le conflit israélo-palestinien : une saga cinématographique », par François DUBUISSON (ULB)
Pause
16h – 16h30 :
« 007, Jack Bauer et OSS 117 : quels faits internationalement illicites ? », par Jacobo RIOS RODRIGUEZ (Université de Perpignan Via Domitia)
Débats
18h – Cocktai l organisé à l’occasion des 50 ans du Centre de droit international ,
avec une al locution de Jean Salmon
— Mardi 18 février —
Atelier 3 – La justice entre en scène
Présidence : Patricia NAFTALI (ULB)
9h – 10h :
« Quand la justice pénale internationale tient le premier rôle », par Anne LAGERWALL (ULB)
« Les crimes internationaux vus par le cinéma: une mobilisation intuitive du droit pénal international », par Xavier PHILIPPE (Université d’Aix Marseille)
Pause
10h30 – 11h :
« Les formes des justices transitionnelles ou alternatives : une fiction ? », par Noémie TURGIS (Université Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne)
Débats
Atelier 4 – Les droits de la personne à l’écran
Présidence : Eric David (ULB)
13h30 – 14h30 :
« La distinction entre combattant et non-combattant dans les films de guerre : une projection en trompe-l’oeil », par Martyna FALKOWSKA et Vaios KOUTROULIS (ULB)
« La mise en scène de la lutte contre le terrorisme : où sont passés les droits de l’Homme ? », par Michel TABBAL (Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité)
Pause
15h-15h30 :
« La quête du Graal : droits de l’homme et de la femme dans l’oeuvre des Monty Python », par Karine BANNELIER et Théodore CHRISTAKIS (Université de Grenoble)
Débats
16h30 : Conclusions
Serge SUR (Université Paris II, Panthéon-Assas

Enlaces de interés : Lista de films : http://cdi.ulb.ac.be/category/cinema/

Saturday, February 15, 2014

Teoría jurídica de la prueba: el razonamiento abductivo



Juan Antonio García Amado, Pablo Raul Bonorino (eds.)
Prueba y razonamiento probatorio en Derecho. Debates sobre abducción
Comares, Granada, 2013, 368 pp.
ISBN: 9788490451359



Uno de los preceptos legales españoles que regulan la motivación de las decisiones judiciales, quizá el más importante de todos, es el art. 218.2 de la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil (en adelante, LEC). Este precepto exige, entre otras cosas, que la motivación de las decisiones judiciales se ajuste «siempre a las reglas de la lógica y de la razón».
La referencia del término «reglas de la lógica» es clara (al menos para quien, como yo, sea partidario de la unidad de la lógica). Pero no puede decirse lo mismo del término «reglas de la razón». No obstante, parece que una de las reglas que presenta mejores credenciales para ser considerada una regla de la razón es la regla que exige decir la verdad. Pues supongamos que un juez, en la motivación de una decisión suya, afirmara que en el documento x aportado al procedimiento por una de las partes se dice tal cosa; y, sin embargo, el documento x no hubiera sido aportado al procedimiento o bien hubiera sido aportado, pero el documento no dijera en absoluto lo que el juez afirma que dice. En este caso, el juez habría infringido la regla que exige decir la verdad. Pero habría que preguntarse si, al infringir dicha regla, el juez había infringido también alguna regla jurídica. En mi opinión, el único precepto legal que cabría citar es precisamente el art. 218.2 de la LEC, considerando que una de las reglas de la razón a las que dicho artículo se refiere es precisamente la regla que exige decir la verdad.
Sin embargo, sería precipitado extraer de las observaciones anteriores la conclusión de que la función del juez o la finalidad de un proceso judicial es buscar la verdad y que la posición del juez ante la búsqueda de la verdad es igual o parecida a la de un científico. Éste es precisamente el tema sobre el que versa esta colaboración.


I. CUESTIONES PRIMERAS SOBRE PRUEBA, VERDAD Y RAZONAMIENTO PROBATORIO EN DERECHO


EL JUEZ, EL CIENTÍFICO Y LA BÚSQUEDA DE LA VERDAD
Rafael Hernández Marín

1. LAS OBLIGACIONES BÁSICAS DE LOS JUECES, EN TEORÍA
2. EL RAZONAMIENTO PROBATORIO, EN TEORÍA
2.1. Requisitos para que un enunciado forme parte del razonamiento probatorio
2.2. Los enunciados probatorios
3. LAS OBLIGACIONES BÁSICAS DE LOS JUECES, EN LA PRÁCTICA
3.1. Un caso hipotético
3.2. Ocho subcasos posibles
4. EL JUEZ Y EL CIENTÍFICO
4.1. El juez, el científico y la búsqueda de la verdad
4.2. El razonamiento probatorio del juez y el razonamiento científico
BIBLIOGRAFÍA .


LAS SITUACIONES PROBATORIAS
ASPECTOS LÓGICOS DE LA DECISIÓN SOBRE LOS HECHOS
Michele Taruffo

1. INTRODUCCIÓN
2. EL HEXÁGONO DE COMPATIBILIDAD
3. COMPATIBILIDAD INTERNA Y EXTERNA
4. EXTENSIONES
5. CONSECUENCIAS
BIBLIOGRAFÍA


ELEMENTOS PARA EL ANÁLISIS DE LA PRUEBA
Y DEL RAZONAMIENTO PROBATORIO EN DERECHO
Juan Antonio García Amado

1. EL HECHO A PROBAR
2. HECHOS VERDADEROS Y HECHOS PROBADOS: UNA RELACIÓN PROBLEMÁTICA
3. HECHO A PROBAR Y HECHOS PROBATORIOS: RELACIONES MATERIALES E INFERENCIAS
4. RELACIÓN PROBATORIA COMO RELACIÓN ENTRE ENUNCIADOS
4.1. Relación material o sustantiva entre la verdad de los enunciados Eh y EH
4.2. Relación entre el enunciado probatorio y el enunciante
5. RAZONAMIENTO PROBATORIO CON UNA ÚNICA PRUEBA
6. ¿Y SI LAS PRUEBAS MANEJADAS SON VARIAS, COMO SUELE OCURRIR?
7. Y VUELTA A LA RELACIÓN ENTRE VERDAD Y PRUEBA DE LOS HECHOS
BIBLIOGRAFÍA


PRESUNCIÓN DE INOCENCIA, VERDAD Y OBJETIVIDAD
Daniel González Lagier

1. ALGUNAS CUESTIONES BÁSICAS SOBRE LA PRUEBA DE LOS HECHOS
1.1. El modelo general
1.2. La estructura de la inferencia probatoria
1.3. Tres tipos de inferencias probatorias
1.4. ¿Prueba directa vs. prueba indirecta?
2. PRESUNCIÓN DE INOCENCIA COMO REGLA PROBATORIA Y VERDAD
2.1. La presunción de inocencia como garantía epistemológica
2.2. Las inferencias probatorias epistémicas y el problema del carácter aproximado de nuestros juicios sobre la verdad
2.3. Las inferencias probatorias normativas y las restricciones a la libre valoración de la prueba
2.3.1. La justificación de las inferencias probatorias normativas
2.3.2. El problema de la prueba de los elementos subjetivos del delito
2.4. Las inferencias probatorias interpretativas y el problema de la relatividad conceptual
2.4.1. Verdades relativas
2.4.2. El «realismo interno» y el concepto de verdad
2.4.3. El realismo pragmático en el Derecho
3. PRESUNCIÓN DE INOCENCIA COMO REGLA DE JUICIO Y ESTÁNDAR DE PRUEBA
3.1. Qué es el estándar de prueba
3.2. El problema de la objetividad
3.3. Algunos intentos de solución
BIBLIOGRAFÍA


II. RAZONAMIENTO PROBATORIO: ¿DEDUCCIÓN?

¿INDUCCIÓN? ¿ABDUCCIÓN?
USOS JURÍDICOS DE LA ABDUCCIÓN
Giovanni Tuzet

1. ABDUCCIÓN Y RAZONAMIENTO
2. USOS JURÍDICOS DE LA ABDUCCIÓN
2.1. La abducción explicativa
2.2. La abducción clasificatoria
2.3. La abducción interpretativa
2.4. La abducción de principios
2.5. La abducción práctica
3. ABDUCCIÓN Y RAZONAMIENTO PROBATORIO
3.1. Un caso sorprendente
3.2. ¿Qué inferencias probatorias?
4. ¿QUÉ MODELOS DE RAZONAMIENTO PROBATORIO?
4.1. El modelo deductivo
4.2. El modelo inductivo
4.3. El modelo de la inferencia «a la mejor explicación»
BIBLIOGRAFÍA


¿LÓGICA DEL DESCUBRIMIENTO PARA LA PRUEBA?
Marina Gascón Abellán

1. CARACTERIZACIÓN GENERAL DEL RAZONAMIENTO PROBATORIO. ¿IN-DUCCIÓN O ABDUCCIÓN?
1.1. La prueba como inducción
1.2. La prueba como abducción
2. EL SENTIDO DE UNA LÓGICA DEL DESCUBRIMIENTO
3. ¿UNA LÓGICA DEL DESCUBRIMIENTO PARA LA PRUEBA?
3.1. El sentido del «descubrimiento» en la prueba
3.2. La «lógica» del descubrimiento/justificación en la prueba
BIBLIOGRAFÍA


NI DEDUCCIÓN NI INDUCCIÓN: ABDUCCIÓN
Pablo Bonorino Ramírez

1. UN EJEMPLO CLÁSICO
1.1. La disección del ejemplo clásico
1.2. El escéptico deductivista
1.3. El escéptico inductivista
2. EL EJEMPLO CLÁSICO BAJO OTRA PERSPECTIVA
3. EL JUEZ Y LA ABDUCCIÓN
4. CONCLUSIONES
BIBLIOGRAFÍA


LA PRUEBA INDICIARIA: ¿DEDUCCIÓN? ¿INDUCCIÓN? ¿ABDUCCIÓN?
¿O INFERENCIA A LA MEJOR EXPLICACIÓN?
Carlos de Miranda Vázquez

1. INTRODUCCIÓN
2. CÓMO FUNCIONA EL RAZONAMIENTO PRESUNTIVO
2.1. La máxima de experiencia como elemento vertebrador de la inferencia indiciaria
2.2. Presumir es pasar de un hecho a otro: un tránsito lógico
2.3. ¿Hay algo más? ¿Basta con transitar de un hecho a otro? ¿Qué hay de la argumentación infirmativa?
2.4. ¿Las inferencias presuntivas consisten siempre en «pasar» de un hecho a otro? Sobre la escurridiza cuestión de la determinación del autor de un hecho delictivo
2.5. Breve recapitulación
3. CLASIFICACIÓN DE LA INFERENCIA PRESUNTIVA
3.1. ¿Es un supuesto de deducción?
3.2. ¿Es un caso de inducción? La inducción cuantitativa y la inducción de caracteres
3.3. ¿Llevan razón quienes la califican de abducción?
3.3.1. La «abducción heurística pura» o la lógica del descubrimiento
3.3.2. La «abducción heurística discreta» o la lógica retroductiva cotidiana
3.3.3. La «abducción demostrativa» o modus ponendo ponens derrotable
3.4. ¿Es la presunción, más exactamente, una inferencia a la mejor explicación?
4. CONCLUSIONES
BIBLIOGRAFÍA


III. RAZONAMIENTO ABDUCTIVO. USOS Y LÍMITES

RAZONAMIENTO ABDUCTIVO Y MÉTODO AXIOMÁTICO
EN LA LÓGICA DEÓNTICA
Lorenzo Peña y Gonzalo

1. LA LÓGICA PRE-AXIOMÁTICA: DE ARISTÓTELES A FREGE
2. LA LÓGICA COMO UN CÁLCULO AXIOMÁTICO. ¿INTUICIÓN?
3. LAS LÓGICAS NO ARISTOTÉLICAS. EL HOLISMO DE QUINE
4. LAS LÓGICAS DEÓNTICAS: ¿CÓMO ELEGIR LOS AXIOMAS?
5. LA ABDUCCIÓN COMO MÉTODO HEURÍSTICO Y JUSTIFICATIVO DE LA LÓGICA JURÍDICA
6. PRINCIPIOS DE LA LÓGICA JURISPRUDENCIAL
7. DOS CÁNONES METALÓGICOS
8. EL PRINCIPIO DEL BIEN COMÚN
9. EL PRINCIPIO DE OBLIGACIÓN CONSECUENTE
10. TRES OBJECIONES
BIBLIOGRAFÍA


ABDUCCIÓN DEÓNTICA
Carlos Alarcón

1. DEDUCCIÓN DEÓNTICA
2. DEDUCCIÓN ANANKÁSTICA
3. PEIRCE Y WITTGENSTEIN
4. ABDUCCIÓN Y GRUNDNORM
BIBLIOGRAFÍA


EL PRINCIPIO DE PRECAUCIÓN, EJEMPLO DE UNA MALA ABDUCCIÓN
Txetxu Ausín

1. INTRODUCCIÓN
2. EL PP CONTRA LA PRUEBA CIENTÍFICA: ENSAYO SIN ERROR
3. EL PP CONTRA LA ARGUMENTACIÓN JURÍDICA: LA INVERSIÓN DE LA CARGA DE LA PRUEBA
4. LA PRESUNCIÓN DEL DAÑO EN EL PP
5. LA HIPÓTESIS DEL PEOR ESCENARIO POSIBLE
6. CONCLUSIÓN
BIBLIOGRAFÍA


IV. DOS CUESTIONES DE PRUEBA


LA PRUEBA DE LA «VIDA MARITAL» COMO CAUSA DE EXTINCIÓN
DE LA PENSIÓN COMPENSATORIA
Pilar Gutiérrez Santiago

1. PLANTEAMIENTO DEL TEMA
2. PROBLEMÁTICA PROBATORIA GENERAL DE LA VIDA MARITAL
2.1. La dificultad de pruebas directas y el recurso a la «prueba» de presunciones
2.2. Medios acreditativos de los indicios de vida marital: referencia particular a los testigos, detectives, certificados de empadronamiento y cuentas bancarias
2.3. Los hijos comunes del perceptor de la pensión con otra persona: su relativo valor probatorio de la vida marital entre ambos progenitores
3. DIVERGENCIAS INTERPRETATIVAS DE LA EXPRESIÓN «VIVIR MARITALMENTE» DEL ART. 101.1 DEL CÓDIGO CIVIL
3.1. Interpretación judicial restrictiva: la exigencia de prueba de convivencia en la misma vivienda con cohabitación estable y análoga a la matrimonial
3.2. La vida marital y su interpretación judicial in dubio pro deudor de la pensión: el carácter prescindible de la prueba de la cohabitación y la relajación de las notas de habitualidad y permanencia de la relación de pareja
BIBLIOGRAFÍA

INTERVENCIONES CORPORALES Y PRUEBA DE ADN:
LIBRE VALORACIÓN PROBATORIA Y ARGUMENTACIÓN JURÍDICA
Inés C. Iglesias Canle

1. INTRODUCCIÓN
2. LAS INTERVENCIONES CORPORALES Y SU REGULACIÓN LEGAL EN EL
ORDENAMIENTO JURÍDICO ESPAÑOL
3. LA PRUEBA DE ADN: EFICACIA Y VALORACIÓN PROBATORIA
3.1. Eficacia
3.1.1. Recogida de fuentes de prueba y actividad probatoria
3.1.2. Requisitos técnicos
3.1.3. Requisitos legales: la prueba prohibida
3.2. La apreciación de la prueba de ADN
3.2.1. Naturaleza indiciaria
3.2.2. Naturaleza probabilística
3.3. Libre valoración probatoria y argumentación jurídica
BIBLIOGRAFÍA

Friday, February 14, 2014

La cultura jurídica europea, de António M. Hespanha, en edición italiana


António M. Hespanha
La cultura giuridica europea
Sintesi di un millennio

Trad. di Giovanni Damele
Società editrice il Mulino (Collana "Manuali") pp. 408, 2013,
ISBN: 978-88-15-24621-9


Dal Medioevo agli sviluppi del pensiero giuridico in età contemporanea, fino ai più recenti indirizzi del postmodernismo, il manuale presenta una sintesi complessiva di storia del diritto e delle istituzioni europee. Un panorama ampio e documentato, che mette in luce la fondamentale unità che, al di là delle varie declinazioni locali, contraddistingue l’Europa del diritto fin dalle origini.

INDICE

Prefazione

PARTE PRIMA. STORIA DEL DIRITTO E STORIA DELLE ISTITUZIONI
I. La storia del diritto nella formazione dei giuristi

1. La storia del diritto come discorso legittimante
2. La storia critica del diritto
II. Linee di orientamento per una nuova storia politica e istituzionale

1. La storia istituzionale come discorso storico
2. Il modello statalista e la sua crisi
3. Il post-statalismo: differenziazione, localismo, pluralismo e microstoria
4. La «trama» della comunicazione giuridica
5. Produzione, ricezione, riutilizzazione dei discorsi giuridici
6. L’idea della continuità e della subordinazione della storia politica
7. L’idea di rottura e il recupero dell’alterità del diritto del passato. Alcuni esempi
8. Una lettura densa delle fonti: verso la coscienza della diversità
9. L’educazione dell’anima come fonte di un diritto prima del diritto
10. Economia morale e condizionamenti pratici. Testo e contesto
11. Una nota su «relativismo metodologico» e «relativismo morale»


PARTE SECONDA. MODERNITÀ, PREMODERNITÀ, POSTMODERNITÀ

III. Ambito cronologico, territoriale e tematico
IV. La cultura giuridica premoderna

1. L’immaginario premoderno della società e del potere
2. La concezione corporativa della società
3. La ricezione del diritto romano e la formazione del «diritto comune»
4. Fattori di unifi cazione dei diritti europei
5. Un ordine giuridico pluralistico
6. Una costellazione di ordini normativi
7. L’unifi cazione attraverso la «scienza». Le scuole della tradizione giuridica medievale
8. Il modello discorsivo del diritto comune europeo
9. La struttura discorsiva

V. Il diritto moderno

1. La modernità giuridica
2. L’alta modernità e la transizione: la crisi del secolo XVI e gli orientamenti metodologici successivi
3. La modernità centrale
4. Il diritto della tarda modernità (l’epoca contemporanea)
5. La prima crisi del modernismo. Naturalismo, vitalismo e organicismo. Le scuole anticoncettualiste e antiformaliste. La critica del diritto

VI. Il diritto postmoderno

1. I postmodernismi
2. Il diritto nella postmodernità
3. Come teorizzare un percorso storico complesso? Il costruttivismo autoreferenziale

VII. I crocevia del diritto oggi

Riferimenti bibliografici
Indice analitico


António M. Hespanha insegna nella Facoltà di Diritto dell’Università di Lisbona. Tra i suoi ultimi libri ricordiamo «O caleidoscópio do direito. O direito e a justiça no mundo dos nossos dias» (2007). In italiano: «Storia delle istituzioni politiche» (Jaca Book, 1993).

Thursday, February 13, 2014

Arriesgando a crítico de cine. 'Blue Jasmine'


Es juicioso, y hasta puede que perfectamente legítimo, contemplar en 'Blue Jasmine' traumas psicofamiliares de la autobiografía de W. Allen. La tentanción no es fácilmente vencible. A mí, no obstante, Jasmine y su relación con la hermana y el cuñado/novio, y si se me apura incluso la camiseta de éste en algunas escenas, me recordaron a Blanche (Blanchett !!!) en Un tranvía llamado deseo, pero sin Brando, ni tanto genio como Elia Kazan. Seguramente es una 'intertextualidad' filmica puramente anecdótica. Soy muy obsesivo a veces, o tal vez demasiado a menudo. Esto me lo ha originado W. Allen.
Admitirlo es también mi particular forma de homenajearle.

J.C.G.

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Amigo como soy de las intertextualidades,no es extraño que mis amigos me procuren noticias de otras que no capté o escaparon. Este ha sido el caso de José R. Nina Cuentas, que desde Lima aporta datos sobre una escela de El dormilón (1973), donde Allen parodia a Blanche y D. Keaton a Brando. Es esta:



Un excelente ejemplo de cómo un acto fallido de la voluntad no siempre es inconsciente, y a revés. Diagnóstico que, naturalmente, estoy dispuesto a considerar aplicable a mi mismo. Gracias, José R.

Wednesday, February 12, 2014

Derecho y Arte. Monarquías: "Dieu et mon Droit"


Francesco Coleman (1851-1918). "Dieu et mon Droit"


Imagen de la reina Anne Boleyn (1501-1536), segunda de las esposas del rey Henry VIII, rodeada de consejeros eclesiásticos y doncellas de su servicio personal.
En la mañana del 19 de mayo de 1536 fue conducida a la Torre, donde se llevaría a cabo en privado su ejecución. Su cabello largo y oscuro fue recogido bajo una sencilla cofia de lino blanco, y así su cuello quedó a la vista del verdugo.
"Dieu et mon Droit" (Dios y mi derecho), el lema de la Monarquía inglesa.

Tuesday, February 11, 2014

Cervantes y Don Quijote, Derecho y Literatura. España. Derecho de sucesiones




Florencio Gutiérrez Peña
El testamento de Alonso Quijano en "El Quijote"
Madrid, Ed. del Autor, 2013, 93 pp.
ISBN: 978-84-616-5487-1


Ensayo sobre las características y validez del testamento otorgado por Alonso Quijano.



Florencio Gutiérrez Peña (1953-) es abogado de profesión en Madrid y Doctor en Derecho.


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Gutiérrez Peña es autor asimismo de Miscelánea de derecho privado (Madrid, Ed. del Autor, 512 pp. ISBN: 9788480080930), El derecho de anticresis en el Código Civil español (Madrid, Gráficas Blonde, 2004, 377 pp. ISBN: 9788460901440), que fue su trabajo de Tesis doctoral, Notas de la usucapión, prescripción extintiva y caducidad (con apuntes sobre acciones civiles) (Madrid, Safekat, 2008, 606 pp. ISBN: 9788461242108), Sobre las Cortes de Cádiz y la constitución de 1812 (Madrid, Ed. del Autor, 2013, 225 pp. ISBN: 9788461654888). Ha publicado tambiñen Poesía (Madrid, Ed. del Autor, 2008, 128 pp. ISBN: 9788461254040).

Del libro que ahora reseño adelantó Gutiérrez Peña parte de su contenido en "El testamento de Alonso Quijano en "El Quijote", Alkaid: revista multitemática, 7 (2010), pp. 44-53


Honoré Daumier (1808-1879) 'Don Quichotte et Sancho Pansa' (1851-1852)

 
J.C.G.

Monday, February 10, 2014

Zola y el círculo de Médan



Alain Pagès
Zola et le groupe de Médan. Histoire d'un cercle littéraire
Perrin, Paris , 2014, 479 pp.
ISBN: 9782262033712
.


Publié en avril 1880, le recueil des Soirées de Médan réunit six noms : ceux d’Émile Zola et de ses disciples, Guy de Maupassant, J.-K. Huysmans, Henry Céard, Léon Hennique et Paul Alexis. Une vision commune inspire ces écrivains : manifester leur solidarité intellectuelle pour défendre les principes de la littérature naturaliste. « Ce n’est qu’avec des œuvres que nous nous affirmerons ; les œuvres ferment la bouche des impuissants et décident seules des grands mouvements littéraires », lance Zola à ses amis...
Pour expliquer comment est né ce recueil, cet ouvrage s’efforce de reconstituer le mythe littéraire qui est à son origine. C’est pourquoi il ne limite pas son récit aux seules années 1877-1880, celles du naturalisme triomphant. Mais il choisit de commencer bien plus tôt, en s’ouvrant sur l’exposé de la jeunesse de Zola à Aix-en-Provence. Puis il met en scène, les uns après les autres, tous les épisodes de la bataille naturaliste. Et, après avoir franchi la limite que constitue la mort de Zola, il s’achève en 1930, au moment de la commémoration du cinquantenaire des Soirées de Médan. Il parcourt ainsi plus d’un siècle d’histoire littéraire. En montrant les liens qui unissent les événements entre eux, il retrace les différents épisodes qui ont jalonné cette histoire, des dîners Flaubert à la fondation de l’Académie Goncourt ou à la création du Pèlerinage de Médan. Il évoque des moments de réussite comme des échecs, des périodes d’exaltation comme des affrontements, lorsque quelques disciples rebelles – ceux du Manifeste des Cinq – décident de se révolter contre l’autorité du maître. En somme, il donne à voir, avec ses bonheurs et ses drames, une aventure collective, vécue par des écrivains que réunissait une même croyance dans la capacité de la littérature à représenter le mécanisme des réalités sociales.
En faisant d’Émile Zola la figure centrale de son récit, cet ouvrage entend également présenter l’auteur de L’Assommoir et de Germinal sous un jour nouveau. Il décrit non pas un génie solitaire, enfermé dans son univers personnel, mais un homme qui, depuis sa jeunesse, a souhaité vivre la création littéraire comme une expérience de groupe, en faisant de l’amitié un moteur de l’écriture – sur le modèle du cénacle balzacien des Illusions perdues qui posait entre ses membres l’idéal d’une solidarité sans faille.


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Zola, a quien por tan abundantes razones conviene hoy releer.
J.C.G.

 
Litografía Zola por Henry De Groux sobre foto de Paul Nadar en marzo de 1898

Saturday, February 08, 2014

Robert Alexy en Brasil. Honoris Causa por la Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte. Brasil)





A Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais concederá o título de Professor Honoris Causa ao Prof. Robert Alexy. Entre 10 e 12 de fevereiro de 2014 será realizado, na Faculdade de Direito da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Belo Horizonte, o Congresso Brasil-Alemanha de Teoria do Direito e Direito Constitucional: Conceito e Aplicação do Direito em Robert Alexy. O evento, que integra as atividades do ano da Alemanha no Brasil, homenageará o teórico e constitucionalista alemão Robert Alexy, que estará presente.

Conferencistas:

Robert ALEXY

Luís Roberto BARROSO

Margarida Maria Lacombe CAMARGO

Júlio Aguiar de OLIVEIRA

Alexandre Travessoni Gomes TRIVISONNO



http://www.congresso-bral.com/

Friday, February 07, 2014

Hospitales para Locos. Literatura de la segregación



Hélène Tropé
Folie et littérature dans l'Espagne des XVI° et XVII° siècles
L'Harmattan, Paris, 2014, 296 pp.
ISBN : 9782336007212



À l’aube du XVe siècle, la même année (1410), furent fondées en Europe deux institutions pionnières: l’ Hôpital des fous de Bedlam à Londres et l’ Hôpital des Innocents à Valence (Espagne). Bientôt la Péninsule se couvrit d’un réseau serré d’asiles. Les temps avaient changé : désormais on n’expulsait plus les fous hors de la cité, on les intégrait à l’intérieur de ses murs mais dans des espaces de ségrégation. Parallèlement, dans les systèmes de représentation, les médiévales nefs de fous de Brant, Bade et Bosch, dérivant vers Narragonia, l’île des insensés, cédèrent la place, en Espagne d’abord, puis en Italie et en France, à la « littérature de l’hôpital des insensés », propice à la satire des péchés, des travers et des vices. C’est l’époque où la folie s’immobilise et où la représentation cinétique des fous, favorisée par le thème de la nef, est relayée par d’autres images, statiques, que le présent essai s’attache à faire connaître.
On y verra le parti comique, moral, philosophique ou didactique que les auteurs espagnols ont su tirer de ces étranges et fascinants microcosmes. L’ouvrage inclut notamment une édition critique de Maison des fous d’amour (Casa de locos de amor), parue en 1627 dans une édition des Songes (Sueños) de Quevedo, et une adaptation en français de la pièce du grand dramaturge espagnol Lope de Vega, Les fous de Valence (Los locos de Valencia), jamais traduite auparavant dans cette langue, bien que certains auteurs français de l’époque s’en soient très probablement inspirés.
À l’heure où la découverte récente, à Amsterdam, d’une traduction espagnole datant du XVIIe siècle de l’Éloge de la folie d’Érasme, mis à l’Index dès 1559 en Espagne, relance l’intérêt pour cet ouvrage, on aura plaisir à découvrir les visages que les Espagnols d’alors prêtaient à la folie, cette énigme qui est de tous les temps, sur la définition de laquelle on peine tant à s’accorder, et qui est en permanente mutation au coeur de l’être humain.



Hélène Tropé est maître de conférences habilitée à l’université Paris 3 – Sorbonne Nouvelle. Ses recherches portent sur l’histoire des mentalités et des systèmes de représentation dans l’Espagne des XVIe et XVIIe siècles et concernent notamment le thème du pouvoir face aux marginaux et aux opposants, ainsi que l’histoire de la médecine et des hôpitaux. Sa thèse de doctorat, Folie et société à Valence (Espagne) aux XVe-XVIIe siècles, a été traduite et publiée en Espagne en 1994. L’auteure a fait paraître aussi une étude sur La formation des orphelins à Valence portant sur la même période. Elle s’est ensuite intéressée aux représentations littéraires et iconographiques des favoris et des bouffons des rois espagnols, ainsi qu’au théâtre espagnol classique. Elle a publié en Espagne une édition critique de la pièce de Lope de Vega, Les fous de Valence, dont le présent ouvrage offre à présent la traduction en français. Folie et littérature dans l’Espagne des XVIe et XVIIe siècles constitue l’aboutissement d’une réflexion consacrée à la vision de la folie dans l’Espagne du Siècle d’Or.

Thursday, February 06, 2014

Crime in Law and Literature Conference. The University of Chicago Law School




CRIME IN LAW AND LITERATURE
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
FEBRUARY 7–8, 2014



Organized by Alison L. LaCroix, Richard H. McAdams, and Martha C. Nussbaum


FRIDAY FEBRUARY 7
10:00 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Session 1: Student Papers
Emily Buss (University of Chicago Law School), Chair.


Daniel Telech (University of Chicago, Department of Philosophy, PhD Program), Mercy at the Areopagus:A Nietzschean Account of Justice and Joy in the Eumenides

• The Oresteia trilogy ends joyfully: Orestes is acquitted of the crime of matricide; the Furies become honorable; and both of these because Athens initiates the rule of law. In this paper, I defend a Nietzschean reading of justice and joy in the Eumenides. I argue that the transition from the Atridae cycle of vengeance to rule of law is neither the work of cool rationality nor lacking in substantial arbitrariness. Rather, it is largely due to Athena’s conciliatory function that the Furies undergo the transformation from an orientation of resentment to an orientation of mercy. This change marks what Nietzsche calls the “self-overcoming of justice.” In addition to providing the Furies with their long-desired recognition from the Olympian gods, this advance in justice promises to improve the well-being of Athens’s citizens. I maintain that the Eumenides is optimistic and progressive in one important sense—namely, relative to human aspirations and needs—without thereby serving as an example of Socratic Optimism.


Dhananjay Jagannathan (University of Chicago, Department of Philosophy, PhD Program), Tragedies of Youth: Responsibility in Euripides’ Bacchae and the Law

• Bernard Williams argues in Shame and Necessity that there are many conceptions of responsibility built up out of the same basic elements—cause, intention, state, and response—and that we can only appreciate the notions of agency and responsibility at work in Greek tragedy if we distinguish these elements and take note of the differences and lack of priority between a modern idea of ‘moral’ responsibility and the Greek idea or ideas. In this paper, I develop Williams’s suggestion, made in passing, that there are many modern notions of responsibility, too, including the notion of strict liability in the law. I argue, contra Williams, that all notions of responsibility are moral in the sense that they attribute something to the agent, and that the application of strict liability whether in tort or criminal law shows that what Williams calls ‘moral responsibility’ is a subtle and graded phenomenon. That is why we can account for cases of tragic action in modern terms without appealing to the Greek cultural context, including cases where legal recourse is appropriate.
All the same, I believe we can come to better understand what we think about tragic cases by exploring richly described literary cases. Accordingly, I consider Euripides’ Bacchae and the fate of the young Pentheus in terms of the diminished moral responsibility we now attribute to juvenile criminal offenders. From this comparison, I aim to show that we can better understand why it is that a youthful character diminishes responsibility itself and not simply culpability or the severity of an appropriate sentence when calibrated to the prospects for rehabilitation or reform. In this way, we see that juvenile crime, even in the most heinous cases, carries with it an element of the tragic, an insight often ignored in the treatment of young offenders in American courts.


Marco Segatti (University of Chicago Law School, JSD Program), Law’s Promise: Crime, Religion, and Revolt in Manzoni’s Promessi Sposi

• Manzoni’s Promessi Sposi is a classic of Italian literature. I will try to comment closely on the complex interplay between religion, law and civil disobedience that is depicted by Manzoni in three episodes narrated in the novel. All these episodes, I shall argue, provide a powerful, and yet very controversial, account of law’s promises and failures, within oppressive societies, in protecting people’s livelihood from crimes ordained by the powerful and in preventing social disasters, like the great famine and the ensuing plague in Milan. Within this broad framework, central attention will be paid to Manzoni’s own account of the role of religion—as a last resort for the weak and helpless, merely providing consolatory relief in a world filled with injustices; or as a driving force of history (the Divina Provvidenza), leading the “good” to prosper and the “bad” to punishment in the final “happy ending”; or, as a practice arising in response to the recognition of human vulnerabilities and that (as one human practice among others) may help people to unveil the humanity in themselves and in others. Finally, I will try to show that, notwithstanding the fact that the most accurate reading of the novel would place Manzoni’s explicit working theory of law and religion much closer to the first two interpretations, it is actually possible, by critically reading the novel to find the third one. In turn, I will argue that this slightly “counter-textual” interpretation of the novel’s own ethical and political potentialities can motivate an entirely secular interest in both literature and religion, as possible human responses to crime and injustice, since they both begin by providing “rich descriptions” of (and arise out as responses to) human striving and vulnerabilities.

Stephen Richer (University of Chicago Law School, JD Program), The Not-So-Magical Effects of Expansive Prosecutorial Power: Harry Potter and Criminal Law

• In the Harry Potter books, author J. K. Rowling asks the same question that all wartime governments must ask: “Should we sacrifice personal liberties to better equip ourselves to fight our enemy?” The Ministry of Magic in Rowling’s world chooses “yes.” In The Chamber of Secrets, the criminal process is suspended because of the Ministry’s desperate need to show action (the imprisonment of Rubeus Hagrid without trial). A similar storyline is repeated in books six and seven with the imprisonment of innocent characters such as Stan Shunpike such that, once again, the Ministry may be seen as active and might, by fortune, capture a true criminal by imprisoning many. Even the protagonist of the books—Harry Potter himself—is subjected to a faux criminal trial that is stripped of the normal procedures of the Wizarding world. Rowling clearly disagrees with the Ministry’s decisions. Ministry workers are portrayed as buffoons or, at best, destructively overzealous. Rowling delivers the ultimate rebuttal to the Ministry’s actions when, in book seven, the Ministry is overtaken by evil forces who use the expanded government powers against the book’s heroes. Clearly Rowling sees government power as a double-edged sword, used for good or evil. This paper brings to light the Ministry’s disregard and suspension for normal criminal processes throughout the Harry Potter books. Then, Rowling's opinion of these actions is revealed based on the later fate of the characters. The paper asks if Rowling's worldview is accurate: Is a fair criminal process at odds with waging a successful war? The answer to this question is important because Harry Potter is the first book that many young Americans come to adore, reread, and interpret as they come of age in a world that is increasingly asking exactly this same question.


1:30 p.m.–3:45 p.m. Session 2: Criminal Histories
Will Baude (University of Chicago Law School), Chair.


Alison LaCroix (University of Chicago Law School), A Man for All Treasons: Crimes by and Against the Tudor State in the Novels of Hilary Mantel

• This paper discusses the crime of treason as depicted in Hilary Mantel’s novels Wolf Hall (2009) and Bring Up the Bodies (2012). In the novels, Mantel provides a corrective to the enduring view of Thomas Cromwell as at best a Tudor-era fixer, and at worst as a murderer and torturer—a view made famous by Robert Bolt’s play A Man for All Seasons (1960). Instead, Mantel’s Cromwell is the industrious creator of the modern administrative state. In this characterization, Mantel follows in the scholarly path of Geoffrey Elton, whose Tudor Revolution in Government (1953) rehabilitated Cromwell by arguing that he reformed English government by replacing personal rule with modern bureaucracy and systematizing the royal finances. In different ways, both Mantel’s and Elton’s account rebut the image of Cromwell as a criminal. But I argue that Mantel’s Cromwell in fact should be seen as representing two species of crime: crimes against the state, in the form of treason; and crimes by the state, in the form of espionage and torture. The novels present both forms of crime as occurring at the same historical moment in which the modern state was being formed. Because crimes against the state and by the state both presuppose the existence of the state itself, Mantel’s and Elton’s modernizing Cromwell may not be as distinct from Bolt’s devious Cromwell as the competing accounts would suggest.


Marina Leslie (Northeastern University, English Department), Labors Lost: Infanticide, Service, and the Unlikely Resurrection of Anne Green

• In late November 1650, Anne Green, a 22 year-old Oxfordshire servant, was taken into custody for the murder of her newborn child. When to everyone’s surprise she revived on the anatomists’ table at Oxford University, she presented a unique legal, political, and rhetorical problem for the Oxford experimentalists who revived her. Was she guilty or innocent? Subject to the law or saved by God? This paper explores how these questions were managed in a number of poems in English, French, and Latin by renowned Oxford scholars in 1651 and concludes with Green’s more recent literary legacy in novels by Ian Pears and others.


Richard Strier (University of Chicago, Department of English) & Richard McAdams (University of Chicago Law School), Cold-Blooded and High Minded Murder

• We explore in detail the crime Othello commits when he kills Desdemona, a matter made complex and contradictory by the details of the scene and by the state of mind in which Othello is presented (and presents himself) as being in before the act. After previously raging with jealousy, Othello is eerily composed when he enters the bedchamber; he imagines himself as determinedly, religiously, even lovingly carrying out justice against a women he loves and he scrupulously refuses to shed her blood or mar her physical perfection. Pointing in one direction, the justice theme seems to invoke the legal distinction from Bracton that killing “done out of malice or from pleasure in the shedding of human blood” is murder while killing “done from a love of justice” is not. Yet Othello’s deliberateness also points in the opposite direction, as a hot blooded killing, done on a sudden affray, was manslaughter rather than murder, suggesting that Othello would have been guilty of the lesser crime had he torn “her all to pieces” when first convinced of Desdemona’s adultery, but is ultimately guilty of murder because his rage had dissipated. However, and finally, the crime might have been seen—as Othello sees it—as an honor killing, which the juries of the period would have been inclined to treat with leniency, despite the absence of hot blood. Early modern England may not have been an “honor culture” in quite the way that early modern Spain was, but it was not a culture to which this context was at all unintelligible or clearly “foreign.”


Barry Wimpfheimer (Northwestern University, Department of Religious Studies), “Were All of Israel Established as Liars?”: Perjury and Ancient Jewish Narratives

• The Babylonian Talmud at Makkot 5b records a debate surrounding a hypothetical in which a woman who has already produced two sets of perjuring witnesses attempts to produce a third set of witnesses. The debate pits two third century rabbis against each other: one believes that the litigant loses the ability to produce a third set of witnesses while the other contends that witness credibility is unrelated to the litigant and must be evaluated based on the default presumption of witness credibility. In this paper, I will connect this legal discussion of perjury to ancient Jewish folk beliefs about women who are twice widowed and are referred to in post-Talmudic literature as “Qatlaniyot”—“Killer Wives.” The road to this connection will travel through the biblical story of Judah and Tamar as well as other rabbinic stories about perjury and the “killer wife.” Along the way I will show that both the perjury story and stories about the “killer wife” reflect the absorption of the myth of Pandora’s box into Rabbinic culture and complicate our understanding of the relationship between Rabbinic views of women and the views of their broader culture. The paper will reflect upon the relationship between law and superstition and consider the overlap between legal constructs and those that emerge in folk religion. In the case of the rabbis, I will show that the example of the “killer wife” reflects a pattern of rabbinic thought in which the rabbis consistently characterize superstition itself as female-gendered.

4:00 p.m. Musical Interlude: Jajah Wu, Gary DeTurck, and Martha Nussbaum
Performance of Extracts from Aeschylus’ Oresteia, Starring Richard Posner and Other Faculty and Student Actors

5:15 p.m.–6:15 p.m. Plenary Talk and Panel
Scott Turow, Plenary Speaker
• Panel: Alison LaCroix, Judge Diane Wood, Scott Turow, and Richard McAdams


SATURDAY FEBRUARY 8
9:45 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Session 3: Race and Crime
Randy Berlin (University of Chicago Law School), Chair


Justin Driver (University of Texas School of Law), Bigger Thomas and Smaller Thomas

• In Justice Clarence Thomas’s account of his life before joining the Supreme Court, he includes several striking references to Bigger Thomas, the protagonist of Richard Wright’s Native Son. This paper will examine Justice Thomas’s reading of Bigger Thomas, and analyze how his invocations of Wright’s fictional character sit alongside some of his more notable opinions in the criminal law realm.

Martha Nussbaum (University of Chicago, Law School and Department of Philosophy), Reconciliation without Law: Paton’s Cry the Beloved Country

• Here’s a common view: The pursuit of justice in a situation of great injustice, requires anger. People mobilize through their anger against injustice, and their anger is both a motivation and a creative force in the pursuit of justice. Correspondingly, it is also often thought that political reconciliation requires a process of public atonement on the part of the formerly unjust: they acknowledge their wrongs, and if they ask humbly enough they may receive forgiveness. Forgiveness is here understood as a suspension of angry attitudes. Desmond Tutu, for example, uses Christian ideas of atonement and contrition to argue that there is “no future without forgiveness.” But these claims may be doubted. Some great leaders, for example Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., have been very suspicious of anger, feeling that it deforms the personality and impedes a future-directed search for reconciliation. But if there is no anger, there is also no forgiveness, not of the classic anger-waiving sort. What might the alternative be? Alan Paton’s apartheid-era novel Cry the Beloved proposes a personal analogue of a public process in which a nation riven by injustice might possibly engage. Paton, whose other career was that of superintendent of a progressive youth correctional institution, was deeply immersed in the struggle against apartheid throughout his life, and his novel is one of the movement's most eloquent statements. The protagonists are two fathers: a black man whose son has murdered a white man, and a white man whose son is the murder victim. The scenario is a natural one for the classic drama of contrition, apology, and forgiveness. But this is not what happens. As the two fathers turn aside from anger to imagine, with generosity, a future of interracial cooperation and constructive work, they create, outside the corrupt legal order, a vision of a new legal order, one committed to justice, but generous and forward-looking in spirit. It is precisely this spirit of non-angry and generous reconciliation that was eventually instantiated by Nelson Mandela. The novel, which ends on a note of prophetic hope, has had the good fortune to have its vision realized, albeit by flawed human beings, and thus incompletely.


Kenneth Warren (University of Chicago, Department of English), On Sanctuary and Borders: William Gardner Smith’s The Stone Face and Michael Haneke’s Caché

• This paper will consider the problem of representing and acknowledging state-sponsored crime against noncitizens, using William Gardner Smith’s 1963 novel The Stone Face and Michael Haneke’s 2005 film Caché as points of departure. Smith’s novel, which follows the political awakening of an African American expatriate in Paris, and Haneke’s film, a tale of surveillance that uncovers a repressed memory of injustice, are two of the few imaginative works to take up the massacre of more than 200 Algerian protestors by the French police on October 17, 1961.

1:00 p.m.–3:30 p.m. Session 4: Responsibility and Violence
David Weisbach (University of Chicago Law School), Chair


Saul Levmore (University of Chicago Law School), Kidnap, Credibility, and The Collector

• Kidnap, and especially ransom kidnapping, has a long history, but it has not attracted quite as much literary attention as murder and rape. It raises interesting questions about whether criminal law properly accounts for precaution costs, or fright-induced changes in behavior, as are especially likely to follow in the wake of highly publicized kidnappings. The crime itself is difficult to carry out because ransoms are difficult to collect and because threats, which are at the core of kidnaps, suffer from various credibility problems. The cornerstone of the present essay is John Fowles’ chilling novel, The Collector, about an abductor who seeks not ransom but rather benefits that we associate with consensual relationships. The novel focuses attention on the ways in which people control or even possess one another and, therefore, on the question of how and why we criminalize some controlling behaviors but not others. Along the way and in uncanny fashion, The Collector suggests many interesting features of threats and of kidnapping in particular.

Jonathan Masur (University of Chicago Law School), Premeditation and Responsibility in The Stranger

• In The Stranger (L’Etranger), Albert Camus uses the prosecution, trial, and eventual execution of his protagonist, Meursault, as a demonstration of the injustice of French society. The French are portrayed as incapable of accommodating an outsider (Meursault) who eschews the range of human emotions and motivations they have come to expect. Many critics have focused upon Meursault’s conviction for premeditated murder—actually, assassination—as the touchstone for this injustice. Most famously, Meursault is apparently undone by his failure to shed tears at his mother’s funeral some months earlier. But Meursault’s conviction, and the disquiet Camus means for it to provoke, can only be understood in relation to what might have occurred at a “fairer” trial. Camus introduces that information through Meursault’s lawyer, who suggests at various moments that Meursault’s act of homicide might have been justified—which would result in Meursault being acquitted—or that he might face only a short prison sentence for a lesser crime. Yet a close reading of the French Penal Code reveals no such possibility. Even had his trial been conducted fairly, it is implausible that Meursault could have escaped serious punishment for his crime. Whatever sympathy the reader might attach to Meursault is nurtured by Camus’ mischaracterization of French law. A fuller understanding of Meursault’s responsibility for the killing, his mens rea, and the range of likely carceral outcomes leads to a very different set of conclusions regarding Meursault’s actions and those of his inquisitors.

Mark Payne (University of Chicago, Department of Classics), Before the Law: Imagining Crimes against Trees

• My paper begins with a passage from Jakob Grimm’s Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer that records talionic punishments for taking the life of a forest tree. In an effort to understand how talionic punishment could have seemed appropriate in such a case, I examine a number of fictional examples from antiquity that describe violence against trees in an era before the institution of law as such. In these passages, trees are presented as beings that live though self-care alone. As such, they provoke violence on the part of human beings who suspect that their own dependence on others is akin to the domestication of animals. Talionic punishment for harming a forest tree is thus grounded in the fantasy that the wildness of forest trees stands for the wildness of their human guardians. In conclusion, I discuss a passage from Nathaniel Hawthorne’s American Notebooks in which the notion of sacrilege is invoked in relation to harming orchard trees, but which grounds this possibility in a different relationship between the lives of trees and human beings as companion species to one another.

Blakey Vermeule (Stanford University, Department of English), Protagonists, Antagonists, Egalitarianism, Outrage

• It is a striking and perhaps unappreciated fact of modern literature that much very direct moral talk—talk about moral dilemmas, talk about how to behave in ethically challenging situations, talk about serious ethical compromises and lapses—gets presented to us through gangster fiction—not just crime fiction, but fiction about organized crime. My talk explores this dramatic staging of ethical set-pieces and presents a hypothesis about why that should be the case. My main example will be the first great piece of gangster fiction, Milton’s Paradise Lost. The talk considers such topics as when and under what conditions we root for evil, the so-called puzzle of imaginative resistance, how moral dilemmas are framed with reference to groups, and why a background of tribal loyalty and the threat of defection is an especially fruitful stage for the sorts of scenarios that especially prime our ethical intuitions.

3:45 p.m.–6:00 p.m. Session 5: Suspicion and Investigation
Jennifer Nou (University of Chicago Law School), Chair



Bernard Harcourt (University of Chicago Law School), George Orwell’s 1984: Thought-crimes in the Age of the NSA

• George Orwell’s novel 1984 is a story of thought-crimes (and actual crimes) against a Big Brother state. Sales of Orwell’s 1984 soared on Amazon.com after the disclosures by Edward Snowden that the United States government, through its National Security Agency, had access to practically everything that users do on the internet. According to Bloomberg news, the book “moved to the No. 3 spot on Amazon’s Movers & Shakers list over a 24-hour period.” Various editorial headlines referred to Orwell’s novel, noting that “NSA surveillance goes beyond Orwell’s imagination,” “Orwell’s fears refracted through the NSA's Prism,” or “NSA PRISM: 3 Ways Orwell’s ‘1984’ Saw This Coming.” This paper will revisit Orwell’s novel and its focus on thought-criminality in the wake of the recent intelligence disclosures.


Caleb Smith (Yale University, English Department), Crime Scenes: Fictions of Security and Jurisdiction

• The main line of Law and Literature criticism has concerned itself with narrative; our work has explored how stories are told in legal and literary worlds, with their differing genres, codes, and norms. My paper argues for an alternative approach, one that emphasizes setting (broadly conceived) over plot, spatial claims to jurisprudential standing over allegories of transcendent justice. My case study is the popular literature that emerged from the struggle over Cherokee “removal” between the 1830s and the 1850s: the minister Samuel Worcester’s letters from a Georgia prison; the lawyer-novelist William Gilmore Simms’s “border romances”; and the Cherokee writer John Rollin Ridge’s Joaquín Murieta, sometimes known as the “first Native American novel.” Most recent scholarship approaches this archive through political concepts such as ideology and (especially) sovereignty. From Worcester’s landmark case forward, however, the legal question of jurisprudence was at the heart of the crisis. Simms’s crime fiction suggested that encounters between antagonistic communities, along the edges of jurisdictions, would produce crime; he argued for the imposition of a single authority to secure the peace. Ridge reworked the same sensational genre to produce the figure of the outlaw as an agent of vengeance in newly annexed California, with its syncretic legal system and its rampant, racist vigilantism. I show how each of these texts attempted, in its way, to coordinate the relations between territories and moral communities in an imperial context.


Steven Wilf (University of Connecticut School of Law), The Legal Historian as Detective

• In 1910, Roscoe Pound famously published his distinction between law in the books and law in action. Yet not all action takes place off the printed page. By focusing upon detective novels, it is possible to see what often eludes criminal trials—the labyrinth of criminal psychology, a fully-developed social context, and the lasting effects of the criminal act as social rupture. Detective novels, mysteries, and police procedurals create a parallel, more deeply described world than the traditional sphere of legal cases. Situating, of course, is the particular domain of legal historians. What might the gaze of the legal historian bring to understanding criminality? This essay will interrogate the particular observing eye found in detectives who are also historians. It examines two (legal) historian detectives—those of Israeli author Batya Gur and British novelist Sarah Caudwell. Batya Gur’s protagonist, Michael Ohayon, a Sephardic Jew who was trained in history at the largely Western European Hebrew University in Jerusalem, operates as an outsider-observer. The Ohayon novels revolve around the determination of the social norms of a particular segment of society—and the knowledge that the violation of deeply held norms might lead to murder. Caudwell’s quintessential Oxford Don Hilary Tamar is a legal historian whose (and this provides the outsider touch) gender is never specified. Fussy, pedantic, and acutely aware of the interpretive intricacy of medieval English legal documents, Tamar serves as a guide through the uncertain landscape of clues. If Ohayon reads social norms, Tamar’s great gift is familiarity with the hermeneutics of legal texts. Legal historians, after all, always find themselves caught between the Scylla and Charybdis of text and context.



Alison LaCroix
Professor of Law and Ludwig and Hilde Wolf Teaching Scholar

Martha Nussbaum :
Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics

Richard H. McAdams
Bernard D. Meltzer Professor of Law and Aaron Director Research Scholar

Saul Levmore
William B. Graham Distinguished Service Professor of Law


Fuente: http://www.law.uchicago.edu/events/crimeinlawandlit

Wednesday, February 05, 2014

Más sobre Maquiavelo. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte, Brasil

Indumentaria y guardarropía del Derecho. Law & Fashion (II)


Ruthann Robson
Dressing Constitutionally
Hierarchy, Sexuality, and Democracy from Our Hairstyles to Our Shoes

Cambridge University Press, New York, 2013, vi 261 pp.
ISBN: 9780521140041


The intertwining of our clothes and our Constitution raise fundamental questions of hierarchy, sexuality, and democracy. From our hairstyles to our shoes, constitutional considerations both constrain and confirm our daily choices. In turn, our attire and appearance provide multilayered perspectives on the United States Constitution and its interpretations. Our garments often raise First Amendment issues of expression or religion, but they also prompt questions of equality on the basis of gender, race, and sexuality. At work, in court, in schools, in prisons, and on the streets, our clothes and grooming provoke constitutional controversies. Additionally, the production, trade, and consumption of apparel implicates constitutional concerns including colonial sumptuary laws, slavery, wage and hour laws, and current notions of free trade. The regulation of what we wear –or don't– is ubiquitous. From a noted constitutional scholar and commentator, this book examines the rights to expression and equality, as well as the restraints on government power, as they both limit and allow control of our most personal choices of attire and grooming.

Contents
Introduction

1. Dressing Historically
I. Tudor Regulation of Appearance
II. Constitutional Concerns and Tudor Regulation
III. National Dress
IV. Colonial Hierarchies
V. The Ends of Empire

2. Dressing Barely
I. Stripped of Rights
II. Indecent Exposures
III. The First Amendment, Obscenity, and Secondary Effects
IV. Equality: Of Nudists and Women

3. Dressing Sexily
I. Cross-Dressing
II. Boys and Girls
III. Provocative Clothing, Sexual Violence, and State Protection

4. Dressing Professionally
I. At Work in the Private Sphere
II. Uniformity
III. The Cult of the Robe?

5. Dressing Disruptively
I. School Discipline and the Rights of Others
II. Of Hats and Shackles
III. Rips in the Social Fabric

6. Dressing Religiously
I. The Church of Body Modification
II. Accommodation in the Penitentiary
III. The Importance of Looking at Women

7. Dressing Economically
I. Slavery and Cotton
II. Laissez-Faire, Laundries, and Child Labor
III. Free Trade and Fair Trade

Notes

Bibliography
Cases
Books, Articles, and Other Sources
Acknowledgments
Index


Ruthann Robson. University of New York School of Law.