Jonathan W. Gray
Civil rights in the White Literary Imagination: innocence by association
University press of Mississippi, Jackson, 2013. IX-164 pp.
The statement, "The Civil Rights Movement changed America," though true, has become something of a cliché. Civil rights in the White Literary Imagination seeks to determine how, exactly, the Civil Rights Movement changed the literary possibilities of four iconic American writers: Robert Penn Warren, Norman Mailer, Eudora Welty, and William Styron. Each of these writers published significant works prior to the Brown v. Board of Education case in 1954 and the Montgomery Bus Boycott that began in December of the following year, making it possible to trace their evolution in reaction to these events. The work these writers crafted in response to the upheaval of the day, from Warren's Who Speaks for the Negro?, to Mailer's "The White Negro" to Welty's "Where Is the Voice Coming From?" to Styron's Confessions of Nat Turner, reveal much about their own feeling in the moment even as they contribute to the national conversation that centered on race and democracy.By examining these works closely, Gray posits the argument that these writers significantly shaped discourse on civil rights as the movement was occurring but did so in ways that--intentionally or not--often relied upon a notion of the relative innocence of the South with regard to racial affairs, and on a construct of African Americans as politically and/or culturally nave. As these writers grappled with race and the myth of southern nobility, their work developed in ways that were simultaneously sympathetic of, and condescending to, black intellectual thought occurring at the same time.
Introduction: Perfect Unions: Innocence and Exceptionalism in American Literary Discourse
Chapter One: “The Look Back Home from a Long Distance”: Robert Penn Warren and the Limits of Historical Responsibility
Chapter Two: The Apocalyptic Hipster: “The White Negro” and Norman Mailer’s Achievement of Style
Chapter Three: “The Whole Heart of Fiction”: Eudora Welty inside the Closed Society
Chapter Four: “Negroes, and Blood, and Horror”: William Styron, Existential Freedom, and The Confessions of Nat Turner
Epilogue: Perfecting Innocence
Jonathan W Gray is Associate profesor in the English Department at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. University of New York
Two girls with their dolls in the 1930’s,
Eudora Alice Welty (1909 - 2001)