Thursday, April 14, 2011

Derecho y Cultura popular. El "escribano" en los cantes flamencos


El Notario del siglo XXI, revista del Colegio Notarial de Madrid, que en edición de Marzo-Abril de 2011 (núm. 36) dedica al centenario del fallecimiento de Joaquín Costa la editorial (p. 3) y artículo a firma de José Manuel Garía Collantes ("Joaquin Costa: el rotundo notario del Pirineo", pp. 36-38), incluye además el trabajo de Salvador Torres Escámez, Notario de Arganda del Rey (Madrid), titulado "La figura del notario en el cante flamenco" (pp. 223-226), inserto en la sección Información corporativa. (También disponible en: http://www.elnotario.com/egest/noticia.php?id=2583&seccion_ver=0 ).


Recupera en las letras de coplas gitano-andaluzas referencias específicas al escribano. Menciona cantes de soleá por bulerías, tangos, soléa, bulerías de Utrera, fandangos, tientos ... Los registros proceden del repertorio de intérpretes como Pericón de Cádiz, Juan Peña el Lebrijano, la Niña de los Peines, La Serneta, Bernarda, Porrina de Badajoz, Carmen Montoya, José Meneses, Manuel Agujetas o Manuel Soto Sordera. Una única cita a cultores del floclorismo histórico -Francisco Rodríguez Marín- que tal vez podría haber ampliado a otros importantes colectores -Antonio Machado (Demófilo) o Fernando Belmonte Clemente. Los temas recorren derecho de personas, obligaciones y contratos, y sucesiones.
Sobre valores jurídico- culturales del flamenco remito al siguiente elenco bibliográfico:
- Rosa Peñasco Velasco, La copla sabe de leyes: El matrimonio, la separación, el divorcio y los hijos en nuestras canciones, prol. de Carlos Cano y epílogo de Carlos Lasarte, Alianza, Madrid, 2002. ISBN: 978-84-206-4461-5 [Referencias secundarias al flamenco].


- Alfonso García Gallo, “Una aproximación jurídica a la literatura popular: amor y derecho en el cancionero español”, en Javier Alvarado (ed.), Historia de la Literatura jurídica en la España del Antiguo Régimen, Marcial Pons Eds. Jurídicas y Sociales S.A., Madrid-Barcelona, 2000, vol. 1, pp. 11-33. [Referencias secundarias al flamenco, pero leer al maestro García Gallo es siempre un provechoso ejercicio]

- José Calvo González, El Cante por Derecho. Las “Carceleras” y el krausofloclorismo andaluz. (Un estudio de Etnología jurídica y Filosofía Penal), con presentación de Diego Maldonado Carrillo e ilustraciones de Eugenio Chicano, Ayuntamiento de Málaga, Área de Cultura, Málaga, 2003, 127 pp. ISBN: 978-84-89883-22-2.


Contenido 0. Preliminar 1. Microdiscurso del cante andaluz y minimalismo juridico 2. De la identidad sufriente 3. El corpus de la carceleras y la filosofia del reformismo penal 4. Las carceleras : exegesis tematica y valorizacion critica 5. Las formas de lo jondo 6. Geografia del cante carcelario 7. Penalidad y defensa social 8. Sistema penitenciario 9. Vida carcelaria 10. Sentenciados 11. Espectaculo y fiesta punitiva 12. Carcel y libertad 13. Justicia penal 14. Justicia poética. Apéndice I. Transcripción completa de las Coplas citadas en el texto. Apéndice II. Perspectivas y Prospectivas. 1 Folk Law & Gypsy Law. 2 Jergas delincuentes. 3 Etnoliteratura jurídica.

- Kjell Skyllstad, “Music in Prison and Freedom. Projects and prospects” (disponible en: http://musicandminorities.googlepages.com/kjellskyllstad.pdf )

- Kjell Skyllstad, “From Humiliation to empoerment: The Arts in Retributive Justice” (Pappe prepared for the 2005 Workshop on Humillation and Violence Conflict, Columbia University, New York, Decembvre, 15-16, 2005. Round Table 3. Ahora en Zuzana Jurková and Lee Bidgood (eds.), Voices of the Weak: Music and Minorities, Faculty of Humanities of Charles University Prague, Praha, 2009. (disponible en: http://www.humiliationstudies.org/documents/SkyllstadNY05meetingRT3.pdf ).

- Kjell Skyllstad, “Music Behind Bars: Testimonies of Suffering, Survival and Transformation”, en Olivier Urbain (ed.), Music and Conflict Transformation: Harmonies and Dissonances in Geopolitics, I B Tauris & Co Ltd -Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy Research, London, 2008, pp. 123-135.


[The article deals with the development of music and song as vehicles for the expression of the pain of the prison experience, and as a means of survival and transformation. Special sections are devoted to the function and development of musical genres like the blues and the Spanish Carceleras (Rom prison songs). Born out of suffering and deprivation the blues has become one of the richest repositories of knowledge about the tragic history and human costs of slavery. The Carceleras, like other genres of prison songs, could be considered as micro-histories, mirroring the suffering sustained by a marginalized and distressed people. At the same time they vindicate the prisoners’ claim to dignity and freedom, reflecting on punitive traditions. It seems that the earliest collectors of songs saw their work as a means of voicing protest against the system of retributive justice, and paving the way for prison reform. A number of art projects in prison from different countries are examined in relation to their role in rediscovering cultural roots, fostering empathy with victims, and preparing prisoners for a life in freedom].

- Kjell Skyllstad, “Dos Gritos de Libertad – Giving Minority Prisoners a Voice”, en Abstracts International Council of Traditional Music. 5th Meeting of the Study Group Music and Minorities. Prague, Czech Republic 24 May to 1st June 2008 (disponible en http://musicandminorities.googlepages.com/Abstracts.pdf ) [In 1997 incarcerated prisoners in Spanish jails were invited to participate in a national music contest initiated by the various state provincial governments (juntas) and the state accredited national flamenco clubs (penas), giving contestants a chance of winning a cash prize and, more important, a reduction of their prison term. One hundred and fifty inmates from jails all over Spain responded by sending in demo cassettes. For the final selection thirty finalists were escorted by the Spanish Guardia Civil to the Cordoba prison, and got a chance to perform with the foremost flamenco instrumentalists and shouters (jaleos). The great success of the project prompted the organizers to bring the winners Jose Serrano and Antonio ”El Agujetas” – both members of the Romani community – chained and under armed guard, to Granada for a recording session. Jose Serrano had served 18 of his 25-year prison term for a gang-related homicide, while Antonio ”El Agujetas” had been sentenced to 23-years for a drugrelated crime. On account of their popularity in Spain, and the big success of their recording of Dos Gritos de Libertad (Two Cries for Freedom) they were both put on provisional parole under electronic supervision. The Romani prison flamenco songs –Carceleras -, mirroring the prison experience through a rich spectrum of expressive content, have been seen as major elements in the formation of Romani identity, termed by Jose Calvo Gonzales of the University of Malaga as “identity of the suffering”. A content analysis, as undertaken by Calvo Gonzales, affords a deep insight into the alternative value systems of a marginalized and dispossessed group. The mosaic of forms and themes of Romani prison songs reveals an informal “submerged justice system”, in conflict with the established system of retributive justice. It seems that the early collectors of songs were aware of this conflict and saw their work as a means of voicing protest against the Spanish administration of justice, raising public awareness and paving the way for prison reform. In short giving convicts a voice. This paper will attempt a functional analysis of prisoner songs/voices from selected geographical areas (Spain, Hawaii, Great Britain, Norway) as vehicles for the expression of the pain of the prison experience and means of survival of ”double minorities”].

- Kjell Skyllstad, “Music in Prison and Freedom”, en Projects and prospects, 5th Meeting of the Study Group Music and Minorities (Prague, Czech Republic 24th May to 1st June 2008. Fakulta Humanitních Univerzity Karlovi) (disponible en: http://musicandminorities.googlepages.com/kjellskyllstad.pdf ).

- Paco Espínola, Flamenco de Ley, Univerdsidad de Granada Granada, 2007, 373 pp. (incluye CD) ISBN: 978-84-338-4648-8.
Contenido Prólogo I. La Causa, Paco Espínola: De justicia Cantes Notas II. El Prendimiento, Luis Eduardo Aute: Como la nada Cantes Notas III. El Pasillo, El Gran Wyoming: Mirabrás Cantes Notas IV. El Juicio, José Luis Ortiz Nuevo: A la audensia ban dos pleitos Cantes Notas V. La Sentencia, Justo Navarro: Ante el destino Cantes Notas VI. Ejecución de la Sentencia, Juan Luis Cano: De ausencias y quebrantos Cantes Notas VII. La Cárcel, José A. Lorente: La Carraca: arena, sal y huesos Cantes Notas VIII. El Exilio, José Sacristán: La niña de los ojos Cantes Notas IX. El Ajusticiamiento, Jesús García Calderón: Flamenco y Testimonio Cantes Notas Glosario Bibliografía. El disco 1. La causa 2. El prendimiento 3. El pasillo 4. El juicio 5. La sentencia 6. La cárcel 7. El ajusticiamiento.

J.C.G.

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